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What is a Disaster?
A disaster is defined as a disruption on a massive scale, either natural or man-made, occurring in short or long periods of time. Disasters can lead to human, material, economic or environmental hardships, which can be beyond the bearable capacity of the affected society. As per statistics, India as a whole is vulnerable to 30 different types of disasters that will affect the economic, social and human development potential to such an extent that it will have long-term effects on productivity and macro-economic performance.
Disasters can be classified into the following categories:
- Water and Climate Disaster: Flood, hail storms, cloudburst, cyclones, heat waves, cold waves, droughts, hurricanes.
- Geological Disaster: Landslides, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tornadoes
- Biological Disaster: Viral epidemics, pest attacks, cattle epidemic and locust plagues
- Industrial Disaster: Chemical and industrial accidents, mine shaft fires, oil spills,
- Nuclear Disasters: Nuclear core meltdowns, radiation poisoning
- Man-made disasters: Urban and forest fires, oil spill, the collapse of huge building structures
What is Disaster Management?
Per the Disaster Management Act of 2005 defines Disaster Management as an integrated process of planning, organizing, coordinating and implementing measures which are necessary for-
- Prevention of threat of any disaster
- Reduction of risk of any disaster or its consequences
- Readiness to deal with any disaster
- Promptness in dealing with a disaster
- Assessing the severity of the effects of any disaster
- Rescue and relief
- Rehabilitation and Reconstruction
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