Taliban Afghanistan Issue UPSC Pdf | Impact On India – Afghanistan is Captured By Taliban And Now It Has Taken Over Control On Afghanistan . President Ashraf Ghani fled the country on 15th August, reportedly to Tajikistan. The astonishingly quick collapse of the government, with the terror group taking over the presidential palace on Sunday night, triggered fear and panic in the capital. Taliban Afghanistan Issue UPSC Pdf | Impact On India & Future Billateral Relations With Afghanistan .
About Afghanistan : Taliban Afghanistan Issue
- Afghanistan is a landlocked mountainous country in Southern Asia.
- It is situated in the Northern and Eastern hemispheres of the Earth.
- Afghanistan’s highest point is Mt. Nowshak.
- In the north, a fertile plain front the Anu Dar’ya River.
- In the south, below the mountains, rolling desert and scattered salt flats cover the land.
- Afghanistan is drained by numerous rivers; significant ones include the Amu Dar’ya, Hari, Helmand, and the Kabul – directly east of the capital city, flowing down into the Indus River in Pakistan.
- In 2009 Afghanistan designated a portion of the Hindu Kush Mountains, known as Band-e Amir, their first national park.
- The park contains six deep blue lakes, Band-e Gholaman, Band-e Qambar, Band-e Haibat, Band-e Panir, Band-e Pudina and Band-e Zulfiqar, all of which are separated by natural dams.
It is bordered by six nations –
- By Pakistan in the east and south
- Iran in the west
- Turkmenistan , Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the north
- China in the northeast.
Taliban Afghanistan Issue : Who are the Taliban?
The Taliban, which means “students” in the Pashto language, have been waging an insurgency against the Western-backed government in Kabul since they were ousted from power in 2001.
The group was formed by “mujahideen” fighters who fought Soviet forces in the 1980s with the backing of the CIA.
- The Taliban is a Sunni fundamentalist organisation that is involved in Afghan politics.
- It is also a military group that is involved in an insurgency against the currently elected government in Afghanistan.
- The Taliban controlled almost three-quarters of the country from 1996 to 2001 and was notorious for their strict implementation of the Sharia or Islamic law there.
- The period saw widespread abuse of human rights, especially targeted against women.
- The current head of the Taliban is Hibatullah Akhundzada.
- Mullah Omar is regarded as the founder of the Taliban. He died in 2013.
- The Taliban officially refers to itself as the ‘Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan’.
- The word ‘Taliban’ in Pashto means ‘students’.
Who are the main players in the Taliban?
|Mullah Abdul Ghani Baradar|
Taliban Afghanistan Issue : Origin Of Taliban :
- We Can trace Some Evidences Of Taliban Origin From 1978 Communist Government In Afghanistan .
- The Saur Revolution in Afghanistan (April 27) in 1978 installed a communist party in power there.
- Afghanistan Is a Radical Muslim Country Which Opposes New Schemes And Modernisation Of Afghanistan Culture Which Was Introduced By That Time Cimmunist Government. There Was An Opposition For All these Schemes and Programs From Rural Areas And Other Traditional Set up People.
- Even There Was Opposition Within Government .
- The USSR intervened in Afghanistan wanting to place a communist ally in government there.
- In December 1979, the Soviet Army was deployed in Kabul (February 15). They orchestrated a coup killing the ruling President Hafizullah Amin.
- The Soviets installed their ally, Babrak Karmal as the President of Afghanistan.
- The USA and other western countries saw this as Soviet invasion.
- A bitter war was fought between Soviet troops and the insurgent groups called Mujahideen. While the cities and towns were under Soviet control, the rural parts were under the control of the Mujahideen.
- The Mujahideen were persistent in their fight against the USSR and were also supported by the USA, China, Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Egypt.
- They were given training and weapons.
- The citizens of Afghanistan suffered the most in this protracted war.
- Many civilians lost their lives and homes. Afghan refugees poured into countries like Pakistan, Iran and even India.
- The Soviets withdrew troops in 1989 after nine long years and at the cost of the lives of 20 lakh Afghan civilians.
- Now, the government of Afghanistan had to fight the Mujahideen alone.
- The insurgents took control of Kabul in 1992.
- There was a bloody civil war as the Mujahideen themselves were divided into various factions all vying for power.
- In 1994, a group of students seized control of the city of Kandahar and started a battle for power to control the entire country.
- They were called the Taliban.
- They were Islamic fundamentalists. In fact, many of them were trained in camps in Pakistan where they were refugees.
- In 1995, the Taliban captured the province of Herat and in 1996, Kabul.
- By 1998, almost the entire country was under the control of the Taliban.
- Some of the Mujahideen warlords fled to the north of the country and joined the Northern Alliance who were fighting the Taliban.
- In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, a NATO coalition led by the United States invaded Afghanistan and rapidly ousted the Taliban from power.
- In its place, the US established an Interim Afghan government, which ‘elected’ Hamid Karzai as its leader.
- Since then, Afghanistan, at least on paper, has remained a democracy.
- The Taliban meanwhile went back to their roots as an insurgent group, fighting battles across rural Afghanistan to wrestle back control from US troops and the Afghan Security Forces.
- It remains an insurgent group today.
- Now On 16 August 2021 : Taliban Again Captured Afghanistan .
What is The Aim Of Taliban :
- The Taliban have said they aim to restore peace and security to Afghanistan, including Western troops leaving, and to enforce their own version of Sharia, or Islamic law, once in power.
What do they want for Afghanistan?
- The fundamentalist group wishes to restore Sharia to Afghanistan and those unable to leave the country will have to adapt to a way of life they have not seen in two decades.
- When they last ruled Afghanistan from 1996 to 2001, women could not work, girls were not allowed to attend school and women had to cover their face and be accompanied by a male relative if they wanted to venture out of their homes. Music, TV and cinema were banned.
- The group has said it will end mixed-gender education and return Islamic law to a central place in society.
How are the Taliban funded?
- The group are able to raise funds through several sources, including the opium and drugs trade.
- In areas they control they have taxed farms and other businesses, while the group has also received funding from supporters.
Who recognises the Taliban?
- Only four countries recognised the Taliban when it was last in power: neighbouring Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Turkemnistan.
- The US and the United Nations imposed sanctions on the Taliban and most countries are unlikely to recognise the group diplomatically.
- However, some countries such as China have suggested they may recognise the Taliban as a legitimate regime.
India Afghanistan Relations & Trade | : Taliban Afghanistan Issue
- Despite the denial of an overland route by Pakistan, India-Afghanistan trade has grown with the establishment in 2017 of an air freight corridor.
- In 2019-20, bilateral trade crossed $1.3 billion, Afghan government officials said at a recent interaction with Indian exporters in Mumbai.
- The balance of trade is heavily tilted — exports from India are worth approximately $900 million, while Afghanistan’s exports to India are about $500 million.
- Afghan exports are mainly fresh and dried fruit.
- Some of this comes overland through the Wagah border; Pakistan has permitted Afghan trade with India through its territory. Indian exports to Afghanistan take place mainly through government-to-government contracts with Indian companies.
- Exports include pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, computers and related materials, cement, and sugar.
- Two air corridors — Kabul-Delhi and Herat-Delhi — are in operation now.
- Trade through Chabahar started in 2017 but is restricted by the absence of connectivity from the port to the Afghan border. Trade volumes are minuscule.
Why Afghanistan is important to India?
Taliban Afghanistan Issue And Its Impact On India . Why Afghanistan is So Much Important For India . Full Details Are Given below .
|Regional Balance of Power:||
|Energy Security :||
India’s investments in Afghanistan & Impact Of Taliban On India Investment ?
- India built vital roads, dams, electricity transmission lines and substations, schools and hospitals, etc. India’s development assistance is now estimated to be worth well over $3 billion.
- No part of Afghanistan today is untouched by the 400-plus projects that India has undertaken in all 34 of Afghanistan’s provinces”.
Taliban Afghanistan Issue : A timeline of the US withdrawal and Taliban recapture of Afghanistan
|Oct. 7, 2001:
|Dec. 17, 2001:
|April 17, 2002:
|March 20, 2003:
|Feb. 17, 2009:
|March 27, 2009:
|Dec. 1, 2009:
|May 2, 2011:
|June 22, 2011:
|Dec. 5, 2011:
|May 27, 2014:
|Sep. 4, 2014:
|Aug. 21, 2017:
|Sep. 7, 2019:
|Feb 29, 2020:
|Nov. 17, 2020:
|April 14, 2021: