Taliban Afghanistan Issue UPSC Pdf | Impact On India

Taliban Afghanistan Issue UPSC Pdf | Impact On India – Afghanistan is Captured By Taliban  And Now It Has Taken Over Control On Afghanistan . President Ashraf Ghani fled the country on 15th August, reportedly to Tajikistan. The astonishingly quick collapse of the government, with the terror group taking over the presidential palace on Sunday night, triggered fear and panic in the capital. Taliban Afghanistan Issue UPSC Pdf | Impact On India & Future Billateral Relations With Afghanistan .

Taliban Afghanistan Issue UPSC Pdf | Impact On India
Taliban Afghanistan Issue UPSC Pdf | Impact On India

About Afghanistan : Taliban Afghanistan Issue

  • Afghanistan is a landlocked mountainous country in Southern Asia.
  • It is situated in the Northern and Eastern hemispheres of the Earth.
  • Afghanistan’s highest point is Mt. Nowshak.
  • In the north, a fertile plain front the Anu Dar’ya River.
  • In the south, below the mountains, rolling desert and scattered salt flats cover the land.
  • Afghanistan is drained by numerous rivers; significant ones include the Amu Dar’ya, Hari, Helmand, and the Kabul – directly east of the capital city, flowing down into the Indus River in Pakistan.
  • In 2009 Afghanistan designated a portion of the Hindu Kush Mountains, known as Band-e Amir, their first national park.
  • The park contains six deep blue lakes, Band-e Gholaman, Band-e Qambar, Band-e Haibat, Band-e Panir, Band-e Pudina and Band-e Zulfiqar, all of which are separated by natural dams.

It is bordered by six nations –

  • By Pakistan in the east and south
  • Iran in the west
  • Turkmenistan , Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the north
  • China in the northeast.

Taliban Afghanistan Issue : Who are the Taliban?

The Taliban, which means “students” in the Pashto language, have been waging an insurgency against the Western-backed government in Kabul since they were ousted from power in 2001.

The group was formed by “mujahideen” fighters who fought Soviet forces in the 1980s with the backing of the CIA.

  • The Taliban is a Sunni fundamentalist organisation that is involved in Afghan politics.
  • It is also a military group that is involved in an insurgency against the currently elected government in Afghanistan.
  • The Taliban controlled almost three-quarters of the country from 1996 to 2001 and was notorious for their strict implementation of the Sharia or Islamic law there.
  • The period saw widespread abuse of human rights, especially targeted against women.
  • The current head of the Taliban is Hibatullah Akhundzada.
  • Mullah Omar is regarded as the founder of the Taliban. He died in 2013.
  • The Taliban officially refers to itself as the ‘Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan’.
  • The word ‘Taliban’ in Pashto means ‘students’.

Who are the main players in the Taliban?

Taliban Afghanistan Issue UPSC Pdf | Impact On India
Taliban Afghanistan Issue
Haibatullah Akhundzada
Mullah Abdul Ghani Baradar
Sirajuddin Haqqani
Mullah Yaqoob

Taliban Afghanistan Issue  : Origin Of Taliban :

  • We Can trace Some Evidences Of Taliban Origin From 1978 Communist Government In Afghanistan .
  • The Saur Revolution in Afghanistan (April 27) in 1978 installed a communist party in power there.
  • Afghanistan Is a Radical Muslim Country Which Opposes New Schemes And Modernisation Of Afghanistan Culture Which Was Introduced By That Time Cimmunist Government. There Was An Opposition For All these Schemes and Programs From Rural Areas And Other Traditional Set up People.
  • Even There Was Opposition Within Government .
  •  The USSR intervened in Afghanistan wanting to place a communist ally in government there.
  • In December 1979, the Soviet Army was deployed in Kabul (February 15). They orchestrated a coup killing the ruling President Hafizullah Amin.
  • The Soviets installed their ally, Babrak Karmal as the President of Afghanistan.
  • The USA and other western countries saw this as Soviet invasion.
  • A bitter war was fought between Soviet troops and the insurgent groups called Mujahideen. While the cities and towns were under Soviet control, the rural parts were under the control of the Mujahideen.
  • The Mujahideen were persistent in their fight against the USSR and were also supported by the USA, China, Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Egypt.
  • They were given training and weapons.
  • The citizens of Afghanistan suffered the most in this protracted war.
  • Many civilians lost their lives and homes. Afghan refugees poured into countries like Pakistan, Iran and even India.
  • The Soviets withdrew troops in 1989 after nine long years and at the cost of the lives of 20 lakh Afghan civilians.
  • Now, the government of Afghanistan had to fight the Mujahideen alone.
  • The insurgents took control of Kabul in 1992.
  • There was a bloody civil war as the Mujahideen themselves were divided into various factions all vying for power.
  • In 1994, a group of students seized control of the city of Kandahar and started a battle for power to control the entire country.
  • They were called the Taliban.
  • They were Islamic fundamentalists. In fact, many of them were trained in camps in Pakistan where they were refugees.
  • In 1995, the Taliban captured the province of Herat and in 1996, Kabul.
  • By 1998, almost the entire country was under the control of the Taliban.
  • Some of the Mujahideen warlords fled to the north of the country and joined the Northern Alliance who were fighting the Taliban.
  • In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, a NATO coalition led by the United States invaded Afghanistan and rapidly ousted the Taliban from power.
  • In its place, the US established an Interim Afghan government, which ‘elected’ Hamid Karzai as its leader.
  • Since then, Afghanistan, at least on paper, has remained a democracy.
  • The Taliban meanwhile went back to their roots as an insurgent group, fighting battles across rural Afghanistan to wrestle back control from US troops and the Afghan Security Forces.
  • It remains an insurgent group today.
  • Now On 16 August 2021 : Taliban Again Captured Afghanistan .

What is The Aim Of Taliban :

  • The Taliban have said they aim to restore peace and security to Afghanistan, including Western troops leaving, and to enforce their own version of Sharia, or Islamic law, once in power.

What do they want for Afghanistan?

  • The fundamentalist group wishes to restore Sharia to Afghanistan and those unable to leave the country will have to adapt to a way of life they have not seen in two decades.
  • When they last ruled Afghanistan from 1996 to 2001, women could not work, girls were not allowed to attend school and women had to cover their face and be accompanied by a male relative if they wanted to venture out of their homes. Music, TV and cinema were banned.
  • The group has said it will end mixed-gender education and return Islamic law to a central place in society.

How are the Taliban funded?

  • The group are able to raise funds through several sources, including the opium and drugs trade.
  • In areas they control they have taxed farms and other businesses, while the group has also received funding from supporters.

Who recognises the Taliban?

  • Only four countries recognised the Taliban when it was last in power: neighbouring Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Turkemnistan.
  • The US and the United Nations imposed sanctions on the Taliban and most countries are unlikely to recognise the group diplomatically.
  • However, some countries such as China have suggested they may recognise the Taliban as a legitimate regime.

India Afghanistan Relations & Trade | : Taliban Afghanistan Issue

  • Despite the denial of an overland route by Pakistan, India-Afghanistan trade has grown with the establishment in 2017 of an air freight corridor.
  • In 2019-20, bilateral trade crossed $1.3 billion, Afghan government officials said at a recent interaction with Indian exporters in Mumbai.
  • The balance of trade is heavily tilted — exports from India are worth approximately $900 million, while Afghanistan’s exports to India are about $500 million.
  • Afghan exports are mainly fresh and dried fruit.
  • Some of this comes overland through the Wagah border; Pakistan has permitted Afghan trade with India through its territory. Indian exports to Afghanistan take place mainly through government-to-government contracts with Indian companies.
  • Exports include pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, computers and related materials, cement, and sugar.
  • Two air corridors — Kabul-Delhi and Herat-Delhi — are in operation now.
  • Trade through Chabahar started in 2017 but is restricted by the absence of connectivity from the port to the Afghan border. Trade volumes are minuscule.

Why Afghanistan is important to India?

Taliban Afghanistan Issue And Its Impact On India . Why Afghanistan is So Much Important For India . Full Details Are Given below .

Regional Balance of Power:
  • Afghanistan is tied to India’s vision of being a regional leader and a great power, coupled with its competition with China over resources and its need to counter Pakistani influence.
  • India’s ability to mentor a nascent democracy will go a long way to demonstrate to the world that India is indeed a major power, especially a responsible one.
  • India’s interest in Afghanistan relates to its need to reduce Pakistani influence in the region.
Energy Security : 
  • The pipeline project TAPI (Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India), which seeks to connect an energy-rich Central to South Asia, will only see the light of the day if stability is established in Afghanistan
Strategic Location:
  •  For access to the landlocked Central Asian countries that border Afghanistan.
Natural Resources:
  • The country is home to resource deposits worth one trillion dollars, according to the US Geological Survey.
Regional Security:
  •  A stable Afghanistan is important for regional security in South Asia

India’s investments in Afghanistan & Impact Of Taliban On India Investment ?

  • India built vital roads, dams, electricity transmission lines and substations, schools and hospitals, etc. India’s development assistance is now estimated to be worth well over $3 billion.
  • No part of Afghanistan today is untouched by the 400-plus projects that India has undertaken in all 34 of Afghanistan’s provinces”.
SALMA DAM
  • The hydropower and irrigation project, completed against many odds and inaugurated in 2016, is known as the Afghan-India Friendship Dam.
  • The 42MW Salma Dam Is Located in Herat Province.
ZARANJ-DELARAM HIGHWAY
  • High-profile project was the 218-km Zaranj-Delaram highway built by the Border Roads Organisation.
  • Zaranj is located close to Afghanistan’s border with Iran.
  • The $150-million highway goes along the Khash Rud river to Delaram to the northeast of Zaranj, where it connects to a ring road that links Kandahar in the south, Ghazni and Kabul in the east, Mazar-i-Sharif in the north, and Herat in the west.
PARLIAMENT
  • The Afghan Parliament in Kabul was built by India at $90 million.
  • It was opened in 2015
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated the building.
  • A block in the building is named after former PM AB Vajpayee.
STOR PALACE
  • In 2016, Afghan President Ashraf Ghani and Prime Minister Modi inaugurated the restored Stor Palace in Kabul, originally built in the late 19th century, and which was the setting for the 1919 Rawalpindi Agreement by which Afghanistan became an independent country.
  • The building housed the offices of the Afghan foreign minister and the ministry until 1965.
  • In 2009, India, Afghanistan, and the Aga Khan Development Network signed a tripartite agreement for its restoration.
  • The Aga Khan Trust for Culture completed the project between 2013 and 2016.
POWER INFRA
  • Indian projects in Afghanistan include the rebuilding of power infrastructure such as the 220kV DC transmission line from Pul-e-Khumri, capital of Baghlan province to the north of Kabul, to beef up electricity supply to the capital.
  • Indian contractors and workers also restored telecommunications infrastructure in many provinces.
HEALTH INFRA
  • India has reconstructed a children’s hospital it had helped build in Kabul in 1972 —named Indira Gandhi Institute for Child Health in 1985 — that was in a shambles after the war.
  • ‘Indian Medical Missions’ have held free consultation camps in several areas.
  • Thousands who lost their limbs after stepping on mines left over from the war have been fitted with the Jaipur Foot.
  • India has also built clinics in the border provinces of Badakhshan, Balkh, Kandahar, Khost, Kunar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Nooristan, Paktia and Paktika.
TRANSPORTATION
  • According to the MEA, India gifted 400 buses and 200 mini-buses for urban transportation, 105 utility vehicles for municipalities, 285 military vehicles for the Afghan National Army, and 10 ambulances for public hospitals in five cities.
  • It also gave three Air India aircraft to Ariana, the Afghan national carrier, when it was restarting operations.
OTHER PROJECTS
  • India has contributed desks and benches for schools, and built solar panels in remote villages, and Sulabh toilet blocks in Kabul.
  • New Delhi has also played a role in building capacity, with vocational training institutes, scholarships to Afghan students, mentoring programmes in the civil service, and training for doctors and others.
ONGOING PROJECTS
  • India had concluded with Afghanistan an agreement for the construction of the Shatoot Dam in Kabul district, which would provide safe drinking water to 2 million residents.
  • India To start of some 100 community development projects worth $80 million.
  • Last year, India pledged $1 million for another Aga Khan heritage project, the restoration of the Bala Hissar Fort south of Kabul, whose origins go back to the 6th century.
  • Bala Hissar went on to become a significant Mughal fort, parts of it were rebuilt by Jahangir, and it was used as a residence by Shah Jahan.

Taliban Afghanistan Issue : A timeline of the US withdrawal and Taliban recapture of Afghanistan

April 1979:

  • In the Saur Revolution, or April Coup, the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan assassinates Afghan President Mohammed Daoud Khan.
December 1979:

  • Soviets invaded Afghanistan in order to prop up the government, which faced internal rebellion.
Early 1989:

  • As the Soviet Union disintegrated, the army withdrew, leaving the Afghan forces to take the lead in fighting an American-funded insurgency.
  • US intelligence estimates over 15,000 Soviet troops died in the decade-long war.
  • The Soviets kept advisers with the Afghans and continued financing the military.
1992:

  • The American CIA, which backed Afghan rebel groups, withdrew its aid. The Russians also cut its funding.
  • The pro-Russian government was overthrown, and Afghanistan was plunged into a bloody civil war, setting the stage for the Taliban to assume power four years later.
1994:

  • The Taliban, or “students” in the Pashto language, emerges from Islamist fighters in Pakistan and Afghanistan who fought against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan for over a decade.
  • That conflict ended in 1989.
1996:

  • After a two-year civil war, most of Afghanistan comes under the control of the Taliban, who institute fundamentalist policies and widespread repression of human rights.
Sep.11, 2001:

  • Terrorists affiliated with al-Qaida hijack commercial planes to execute terror attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon outside Washington.
  • The terrorists planned, trained and directed the attacks from Afghanistan.
Oct. 7, 2001:

  • U.S. and United Kingdom forces begin Operation Enduring Freedom, a bombing campaign against Taliban forces in Afghanistan.
Dec. 17, 2001:

  • U.S. and allied forces have driven Taliban from power in Afghanistan. Al-Qaida disperses.
April 17, 2002:

  • President George W. Bush calls for a Marshall Plan for Afghanistan.
March 20, 2003:

  • U.S. invades Iraq, diverting military resources and attention from Afghanistan.
Feb. 17, 2009:

  • President Barack Obama recommits U.S. forces to Afghanistan to combat “resurgent” Taliban.
March 27, 2009:

  • Obama announces new strategy for Afghanistan, connecting the return of the group in parts of the country to the Pakistani Taliban.
  • He calls for greater cooperation from Pakistan.
Dec. 1, 2009:

  • Obama announces 30,000 additional troops will be sent to Afghanistan on top of the 68,000 already stationed in the country in a move later known as “the surge.”
May 2, 2011:

  • Obama announces the U.S. military and CIA agents successfully found and killed Osama bin Laden.
June 22, 2011:

  • Obama announces troop draw downs to begin in Afghanistan.
Dec. 5, 2011:

  • World leaders gather in Bonn, Germany, to discuss how to build a road map for the future of Afghanistan.
  • U.S. and Western allies commit billions in investment to support development of Afghan government.
May 27, 2014:

  • Obama announces plan for full troop withdrawal from Afghanistan by end of 2016.
Sep. 4, 2014:

  • NATO issues a joint statement, designating that Afghan Security Forces “will assume full responsibility for security” of the country by the end of the year.
  • International coalition ends its operations in Afghanistan, U.S. continues its own battle.
Aug. 21, 2017:

  • President Donald Trump cautions against “hasty” troop withdrawal from Afghanistan that “would create a vacuum.
  • ” Trump said that he shares Americans’ “frustration” with foreign wars, assures that “we are not nation-building again; we are killing terrorists.”
Sep. 7, 2019:

  • Trump calls off U.S.-Taliban peace talks that began in late 2018.
Feb 29, 2020:

  • President Donald Trump negotiates a deal with the Taliban for U.S. troop withdrawal by May 1, 2021.
Nov. 17, 2020:

  • Pentagon announces plans to reduce troop levels to 2,500 in Afghanistan and Iraq in final days of Trump administration.
New commander-in-chief:

  • Trump claims Afghanistan withdrawal would have been ‘much more successful’ if he were president. Would it
April 14, 2021:

  • President Joe Biden announces that full troop withdrawal from Afghanistan will be complete by Sept. 11.
Aug. 15:

  • Kabul, the national capital, falls to the Taliban. Afghan president flees country, government collapses. U.S. Embassy in Kabul is evacuated

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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